Environmental performance

The Standard Aggregation Data (SAD) monitoring and reporting system is used to keep track of environmental performance, measure the effectiveness of actions taken to achieve targets, and plan new initiatives for continuous improvement, through the management of Key Performance Indicators (KPI). These indicators can be analyzed at different aggregate levels (plant, segment or corporate), which allows for Company intervention as well as the engagement of different corporate functions at various levels, simultaneously and in parallel, to ensure that targets are met.

SAFEGUARDING AIR QUALITY

Reducing atmospheric emissions is one of CNH Industrial’s strategic goals, consistent with the results of the materiality analysis. The application of best available technologies, both in the manufacturing process and in the production and use of energy, is critical to ensure that the improvement targets set by the Company are met.

The main atmospheric emissions are monitored according to specific programs to ensure that existing regulations are complied with, and results are systematically recorded by means of the SAD monitoring system.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC)

VOC emissionsOf all manufacturing processes, painting has the greatest environmental impact owing to the presence of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). For this reason, CNH Industrial is committed to monitoring and reducing VOC emissions per square meter painted. In 2009, chosen as the base year * , the Company’s average emissions were approximately 67 g/m2 painted; in 2013, the value dropped to 48.6 g/m2 (-27.5%), achieving the reduction target of -15% compared with 2009 one year in advance.

Aiming at reducing emissions into the atmosphere, the plant in Goodfield (USA) has developed a new painting system with low environmental impact. The system consists of a pretreatment line equipped with a multi-stage washer, an electrophoresis immersion basin, and an enamel powder coating system replacing the previous solvent-based one. The new system enhances the quality of the painted product, while reducing the plant’s environmental impact. VOC emissions were in fact abated by 97%. It is also equipped with a system for the treatment and recovery of the wastewater from washing, increasing water recycling by 55%.

An intervention on painting processes was also carried out at the plant in Curitiba (Brazil), allowing for a considerable reduction in VOC emissions. The plant’s two-component mixture used until 2012, presenting a VOC content of about 52%, was replaced with a new system using a single-component paint containing about 35% VOC.

 

EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

CNH INDUSTRIAL WORLDWIDE (g/m2)
 201320122011
Average VOC emissions48.649.453.8

Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS)

At CNH Industrial plants, Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) are only present in certain equipment used for cooling, air conditioning and climate control.

The Company regularly updates the inventory of systems and equipment containing ODS, to monitor the quantity of these substances within plants. Other interventions and actions are being implemented to completely replace them with more eco-compatible gases and/or technologies by the end of 2014.

Ahead of the aforementioned deadline, the plant in Ulm (Germany), in conjunction with the renovation of its facilities, eliminated all of the existing ODS, removing a total of approximately three hundred kilos. Similarly, the Zedelgem plant (Belgium) carried out an important initiative providing for the complete removal of the existing 335 kilos of ODS by early 2014, to be replaced with eco-friendly gas. These two activities have cut ODS by almost 30% at CNH Industrial plants in the EMEA Region.

Furthermore, as part of the Company’s information initiatives on environmental issues, specific guidelines regarding legal requirements and the proper handling of refrigerant gases were developed and disseminated in 2013 to the plants in the EMEA Region, to inform and make employees aware of the regulatory requirements and environmental aspects associated with the substances present in plants.

No accidental ODS leaks were reported in 2013 (for details on ODS emissions see page 220).

EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

AGRICULTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT (g/m2)

agricultural and construction equipment

TRUCKS AND COMMERCIAL VEHICLES (g/m2)

trucks and commercial vehicles

POWERTRAIN (g/m2)

powertrain

  • REDUCING AIR EMISSIONS IS ONE OF THE STRATEGIC GOALS THAT CNH INDUSTRIAL PURSUES BY APPLYING THE BEST MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES AVAILABLE 

(1) The target was updated for several reasons, including: change in production activities (processes and volumes), relocation of some production activities and conversion of some plants, change in reporting scope and interruptions in production. The increase in VOCs in the Trucks and Commercial Vehicles segment is mainly due to their increased use at the Sete Lagoas plant (Brazil), where VOC emissions account for about 40% of the segment’s total global emissions. In 2013, in response to demand, the plant enlarged production of vehicle chassis of different colors, leading to an increase in the number of wash cycles (with solvent) of painting systems and, consequently, to a growth in VOC emissions.

Emissions of NOX, SOX and Dust

CNH Industrial also monitors emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides and inorganic particulate matter, all deriving from fossil fuel combustion, since these pollutants can impact the climate, ecosystems and human health.

Emissions of NOX, SOX and Dust

CNH INDUSTRIAL WORLDWIDE (tons)
 2013201212011
Nitrogen Oxides (NOX)443.0418.8439.5
Sulfur Oxides (SOX)41.250.664.9
Dust5.75.36.4

(1) The data for 2012 have been adjusted compared with those in 2012 Sustainability Report

WATER MANAGEMENT

CNH Industrial considers the sustainable management of water a strategic commitment in a global context where the growth in population and in subsequent water demand is met by a marked scarcity of water resources in an increasing number of areas worldwide. Furthermore, from a business and risk management point of view, the Company recognizes that the economic importance of proper water management lies in the continuity of supply for industrial processes.

CNH Industrial’s efforts in this regard focus on increasing water efficiency within its industrial processes, subject to geographic and ecological context. The Company’s plants operate locally to reduce water requirements and wastewater volumes, while always ensuring high quality standards.

In 2013, the Water Management Guidelines, extended to all CNH Industrial plants during the previous two year period, were used to implement new tools that are integrated with the environmental management system documentation, and that support the management of water resources and effluents at individual plant level; the plants in Piacenza, Suzzara and Lecce (Italy) have actively collaborated in the development of these tools, and initiated their implementation.

In 2014, the project is expected to be extended to other plants, further enhancing the Company’s commitment to optimizing the management of water resources across its production sites.

Plants currently optimize water use by:

  • analyzing the consumption, make-up and management of water withdrawal and distribution systems, and identifying and eliminating leaks and waste 
  • identifying the manufacturing processes with the greatest impact on water resources and adopting changes and technological innovations to boost efficiency and reduce consumption 
  • recycling water within individual manufacturing processes and reusing it in multiple processes 
  • raising staff awareness of responsible water use.

water withdrawalsIn 2013, thanks to joint and coordinated efforts across Company segments, overall water use performance (in terms of water withdrawal per production unit) improved, in line with the targets set for 2014.

Particularly noteworthy is the increasing reduction in water withdrawal per hour of production, which was cut by half compared to 2009 (base year) going from 0.32 m3/h to 0.16 m3/h.

A measure was implemented at the Antwerp plant (Belgium) to reduce water withdrawals by collecting and using rainwater in the production process; in 2013, the amount of rainwater recovered was approximately 275 m3.

Another optimization project was carried out at the Curitiba plant (Brazil), where the painting line pretreatment system was refurbished by reducing the volume of process tanks and by including an oil-water separator, which ensures better quality and increased the duration of the degreasing bath (located downstream of the separator). The project significantly reduced the consumption of water and chemicals used in the degreasing bath. The intervention, in fact, cuts annual water consumption by about 13 thousand m3 (more than 12% of consumption) and the total cost of water withdrawal and chemical consumption by about €24 thousand.

CNH Industrial plants do not use wastewater from other organizations.

WATER WITHDRAWAL AND DISCHARGE

CNH INDUSTRIAL WORLDWIDE (thousands of m3)
 201320122011
Plants555961
Withdrawals   
Groundwater4,0674,7245,278
Municipal water supply2,4962,4362,357
Surface water232330
of which salt water---
Rainwater1n.a.n.a.
Other-19
Total water withdrawal6,5877,1847,674
Discharge   
Surface water1,2441,1951.338
of which salt water---
Public sewer systems3,3893,4393,901
Other destinations764047
Total water discharge4,7094,6745,286

Safeguarding the water bodies that receive the wastewater from industrial processes is equally important. For this reason, all plants are fitted with suitable internal systems for the treatment of their production wastewater.

These systems, which are managed by internal staff or by specialized industry partners, purify the water discharged outside the plant primarily through physical and chemical processes; depending on wastewater quality, biological treatments may be required as well.

The effluents of CNH Industrial plants are not channeled for reuse in other organizations.

For each Company segment, the wastewater quality indicators, which refer to the three parameters considered most representative (biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and suspended solids), showed that performance in 2013 exceeded the expected targets.

Among the activities carried out in 2013, the plant in Racine (USA) created a biofilter system for the treatment of run-off rainwater of part of its plant. After collection in a suitable tank, the rainwater percolates into a green area of the plant set up with native plants serving as biological filters, retaining and removing impurities. Once filtered, the water is discharged into the internal rainwater collection network and drained outside the plant. This intervention was carried out to improve the quality of discharged water while reducing the environmental impact.

WATER WITHDRAWAL PER PRODUCTION UNIT

AGRICULTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

m3/hour of production

agricultural and construction equipment

TRUCKS AND COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

m3/hour of production

trucks and construction equipment

 

 

POWERTRAIN

m3/unit produced

powertrain

  • CNH INDUSTRIAL OPERATES LOCALLY TO REDUCE WATER REQUIREMENTS AND WASTEWATER VOLUMES, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME ENSURING HIGH QUALITY STANDARDS 

Plants in water-stressed areas

Following the adoption of the Water Management Guidelines in 2011, three plants were identified as sensitive in terms of availability and use of water resources across the areas in which the Company operates. The areas in question were identified by using the map of worldwide water-stressed regions, defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in 2008, according to which the countries considered as water-stressed are those where water availability per capita is less than 1,700 m3/year. Following this principle, the plants concerned are those in New Delhi (India), Plock (Poland), and Vysoke Myto (Czech Republic). Specific actions to reduce water withdrawal and water needs were identified and implemented at all three plants, to minimize their impact on the water demand of their hosting countries, in the attempt to preserve and safeguard water resources (see also page 223).

SOIL AND SUBSOIL PROTECTION

In the scope of activities aimed at reducing the environmental impact, and in line with the goals of the Sustainability Plan, specific guidelines for the management of existing underground systems were developed and disseminated in 2013 across all plants in the EMEA Region. These operational guidelines concern the monitoring of existing underground reservoirs, tanks, drains and pipes, for further improving environmental protection.

A policy was also developed and disseminated for new product storage installations, specifying the construction requirements of new above-ground reservoirs, tanks, drains and pipes.

Furthermore, targeted efforts continued to be pursued to minimize possible sources of contamination for soil and subsoil: the plant in Annonay (France) removed two underground tanks containing a total of 12 m3 of fuel, while the plant in Antwerp (Belgium) removed an underground 120 m3 tank containing oil coolant. The number of underground tanks at plants in the EMEA Region went from 91 in 2012 to 68 at the end of 2013, reducing total cubic meters stored by almost 20% compared to the previous year. In 2013, no significant spills of pollutants occurred at CNH Industrial, apart from three events of negligible impact in the NAFTA Region: 0.07 m3 and 0.06 m3 of oil spilt at the Benson plant (USA) and 3 m3 of jetting fluids spilt at the Racine plant (USA), which were all cleaned up to acceptable standards.

WASTE MANAGEMENT 

CNH Industrial strives to optimize manufacturing processes and activities across all plants, with a view not only to enhancing the final product and eliminating wastefulness, but also to improving management of waste produced, which is one of the key aspects of the Environmental Guidelines.

waste recoveredEvery plant carries out in-depth analyses of the entire production chain to improve waste management at every stage, limiting the quantities produced and reducing the risks posed by these materials. In addition, particular emphasis is placed on interventions that increase waste recovery and reuse, through the systematic application of waste sorting at the source where waste is produced. The Company’s commitment to optimizing waste management is shared by all plants alike, dedicated as a whole to finding solutions that facilitate waste recovery and minimize the amount of material sent to landfills. These, in fact, should always be considered a last resort, to be used only in exceptional or emergency cases when other options such as recovery, thermal utilization and treatment are unavailable. The waste disposal method has been determined directly by the organization or otherwise directly confirmed.

Results from 2013 testify to this remarkable effort, since the percentage of recovered waste materials (equal to approximately 83%) increased by almost 9% compared with 2009, while the percentage of waste sent to landfill dropped even further, to around 5%.

With regard to waste generated per production unit *, Trucks and Commercial Vehicles recorded a total drop of 16% with respect to 2009; as regards hazardous waste, the drop compared with 2009 was almost 50% for Agricultural and Construction Equipment and approximately 55% for Powertrain.

 

WASTE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT

CNH INDUSTRIAL WORLDWIDE (tons)
2013 20122011
Plants                                                 555961
Waste generated                                                                                                                                                            
Non-hazardous waste277,200252,002257,487
Hazardous waste26,80730,24736,381
Total waste generated304,007282,249293,868
of which packaging119,62077,03579,220
Waste disposed                                                                                                                                                               
Waste-to-energy conversion12,20810,08110,843
of which hazardous4,9492,600n.a.
Treatment24,89232,50033,816
Sent to landfill15,24415,96415,977
Total waste disposed52,34458,54560,636
Waste recovered                                                                                                                                                             
Total waste recovered251,663223,704233,232
of which hazardous5,0604,749n.a.
Waste recovered82.8%79.3%79.4%
Waste sent to landfill5.0%5.7%5.4%

Numerous initiatives were rolled out in 2013 to optimize waste management. The Piacenza plant (Italy) completed the installation of a new system for the treatment of industrial wastewater (resulting from chassis and finished vehicle washing), authorized for subsequent discharge into the public sewer system. This process will allow reducing the total amount of waste produced by the plant by over 24%, and the amount of hazardous waste by about 80%. It will also generate cost savings worth more than €15 thousand per year since the aqueous cleaning solutions, once disposed of as waste, will now be treated through the new system.

A significant intervention carried out at the Engine plant in Turin (Italy) has allowed reducing the use of raw materials and the generation of hazardous waste. The activity focused on the centralized systems returning the oil coolants used by production machinery, specifically on the progressive replacement of the emulsifiable product with a new high-performance one, and on the subsequent installation of a filtration system with permanent self-cleaning filters to replace the traditional disposable paper ones.

hazardous wasteThe intervention allowed for a 56% reduction in hazardous waste generated by exhaust oil disposal (57 tons per year), and 55% less hazardous waste from the use of absorbent materials (65 tons per year). Another positive aspect of the initiative was the 15% reduction (approximately 1,600 m³) in annual industrial water consumption in the production of oil coolant, and the 63% reduction (equal to 324 m³) in emulsifiers. The total financial benefit in 2013 was about €700 thousand. In 2014, the pilot filtration system will be extended to the remaining sections of the plant, thus completing the project.

A similar intervention, which has yielded interesting results in terms of reduction of both waste generation and product consumption, was carried out at the plant in Suzzara (Italy), where the electrophoresis process was enhanced by installing a control system detecting tank bacterial loads through continuous irradiation of high-frequency electromagnetic waves. This intervention led to the elimination of bactericides (about 8,500 kg per year), and to the subsequent reduction, in terms of hazardous waste production, by more than 800 kg per year of packaging containing bactericide residues. It also resulted in over €100 thousand in annual savings.

WASTE GENERATED PER PRODUCTION UNIT

AGRICULTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

kg/hour of production

agricultural and construction equipment

TRUCKS AND COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

kg/hour of production

trucks and commercial vehicles

Paragrafo sotto

 

POWERTRAIN

kg/unit produced

powertrain

  • CNH INDUSTRIAL’S COMMITMENT TO FINDING SOLUTIONS THAT FACILITATE WASTE RECOVERY AND MINIMIZE THE AMOUNT OF MATERIAL SENT TO LANDFILL IS SHARED ACROSS ALL PLANTS 

At the plant in Sete Lagoas (Brazil), used fluorescent lamps ready for disposal are now successfully recovered through gas regeneration technology, which reduces both the amount of waste generated (about 500 kilos per year) and the volume of new lamp procurements, with total annual savings of approximately €4,500.

An important activity consists in the recovery by regeneration (rather than disposal) of exhaust solvents deriving from painting processes; this allows reducing both the quantity of waste disposed of and the volume of new solvent procurements. This activity was initiated at a number of plants worldwide, including those in Sorocaba and Piracicaba (Brazil). The Sorocaba plant reported a reduction in exhaust solvent production of almost 2,500 tons per year, with savings of about €12,800.

HAZARDOUS WASTE GENERATED PER PRODUCTION UNIT

AGRICULTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

kg/hour of production

AGRICULTURAL AND CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT

TRUCKS AND COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

kg/hour of production

TRUCKS AND COMMERCIAL VEHICLES

  • CNH INDUSTRIAL FIRMLY BELIEVES THAT CARING FOR OUR ENVIRONMENT AND THE SPECIES THAT LIVE WITHIN IT IS ESSENTIAL TO ENSURING A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE FOR OUR PLANET 

 

POWERTRAIN

kg/unit produced

powertrain


PROTECTING BIODIVERSITY 

Consistently with the provisions stated in the Environmental Guidelines, CNH Industrial is strongly committed to preserving wildlife and biological diversity through the adoption of sustainable development strategies.

Activities in this regard have focused on the application of the Biodiversity Value Index (BVI) methodology, developed in 2010 with the scientific support of the Department of Life Sciences and Systems Biology of the University of Turin (Italy) and of a professional consultancy firm. The BVI methodology aims at assessing the level of biodiversity in the areas where CNH Industrial plants are located (which are identified based on position and possible proximity to protected areas of particular interest whether for their environmental context or biodiversity), and at identifying possible interventions to improve existing ecosystems. It tackles issues relating to biodiversity through the two-fold evaluation of:

  • anthropic pressures (Anthropic Pressure Index - API) generated by industrial, agricultural, urban, and infrastructural activities within the concerned area 
  • biodiversity (Biodiversity Index - BI), measuring the most common biological indicators of land and aquatic ecosystems.

In this regard, a close partnership was established between the plant in Curitiba (Brazil), a city close to a protected area of high natural value (Parque Passaúna), and the University of Turin, the University of Paranà and other Brazilian research institutes. The evaluation carried out evidenced a good level of biodiversity, but a high level of anthropic pressure. It also confirmed that the contribution of the plant’s activities to global anthropic pressure was marginal and negligible, therefore requiring no environmental or improvement measures. Despite the absence of specific recommendations, the plant decided to carry out an intervention in favor of biodiversity, planting approximately two thousand species of local plants and shrubs within the large green area within its industrial zone.

A similar case occurred at the plant in Bourbon Lancy (France), where the application of the BVI methodology evidenced a low level of anthropic pressure and an excellent biodiversity index, as indicated by the presence of numerous protected animal and plant species with high diversity value. Nevertheless, even in this case, the plant decided to implement a series of actions within its perimeter and surrounding area, aiming at further improving biodiversity; these interventions, initiated in 2013, involved the planting of hedges and native shrubs on premises, and measures to contain the Reynoutria japonica, a highly invasive plant of Asian origin posing a threat to biodiversity. The hedges foster biodiversity by serving as ecological corridors within the agricultural context and anthropized territory. The overall area subject to containment and eradication interventions measures about 500 m2.

In 2013, the plants at Ulm (Germany) and Suzzara (Italy) completed their assessments of biodiversity indicators. The Ulm plant is located in Baden-Württemberg, an area rich in forests and hills near the border with Bavaria; it is crossed by the Danube River and located in the proximity of four protected areas. The BVI assessment evidenced that the plant is positioned in a zone of low anthropic pressure (API) and intermediate biodiversity index (BI). The Suzzara plant, in the province of Mantua, is located on the right bank of the Po River, and is close to a significant protected area that is part of the Natura 2000 * network. The plant’s BVI assessment was positive for both anthropic pressures and biodiversity. As in previous cases, after the application of the BVI methodology, the Ulm and Suzzara plants were not required to implement any specific actions for biodiversity recovery, just to maintain the index values measured.

These results confirm the high level of focus CNH Industrial plants place on environmental issues, and demonstrate the effectiveness of environmental policies across the territory, supported by local community awareness of environmental protection.

At present, the method has been implemented at the above-mentioned plants. Over the coming years, the application at plants meeting the necessary criteria will be assessed. Specifically, for 2014, the method will be implemented at the plants in Foggia (Italy), Madrid (Spain), and Sete Lagoas (Brazil).

The plant in Saskatoon (Canada) continued to collaborate with local authorities in favor of biodiversity.

The study initiated by the two parties enabled identifying plant species subject to protection (such as the typha angustifolia). On the basis of this study, in 2013, the municipality initiated the drafting of a policy for the protection and integration of the city’s local wetlands.

Lastly, the initiatives in favor of biodiversity launched by the New Delhi plant (India), which were paired with staff engagement and awareness, provided for the planting of over one thousand native plants, shrubs and flowers (such as tringa totanus, leucophaeus atricilla, gruidae, etc.) and for the creation of an area on the site serving as a safe haven for migratory birds from Siberia and China.

 PROTECTING BIODIVERSITY

PLANTS NEAR, BORDERING OR WITHIN PROTECTED OR HIGH BIODIVERSITY AREAS (1)

Company segment and plantType of activityTotal surface
area of plant [m²]
Position in relation to protected
area
Species on IUCN Red List and on national
lists [no.]
Agricultural & Construction
Equipment
  • Curitiba (Brazil)
Production of agricultural
equipment
792,824Adjacent to/containing portions
of the protected area
101 species listed, of which:
  • 0 critically endangered
  • 0 endangered
  • 0 vulnerable
  • 4 nearly threatened
  • 97 of least concern
Trucks & Commercial Vehicles
  • Ulm (Germany)
Production of industrial vehicles
(heavy and special vehicles)
679,000Adjacent to the protected area
(2,000 m away)
153 species listed, of which:
  • 0 critically endangered
  • 2 endangered
  • 1 vulnerable
  • 3 nearly threatened
  • 147 of least concern
Trucks & Commercial Vehicles
  • Suzzara (Italy)
Production of industrial vehicles
(light vehicles)
520,000Adjacent to the protected area
(4,000 m away)
110 species listed, of which:
  • 0 critically endangered
  • 2 endangered
  • 0 vulnerable
  • 0 nearly threatened
  • 108 of least concern
Powertrain
  • Bourbon Lancy (France)
Production of heavy-duty diesel
engines
210,090Adjacent to the protected area
(500 m away)
193 species listed, of which:
  • 0 critically endangered
  • 2 endangered
  • 1 vulnerable
  • 1 nearly threatened
  • 189 of least concern

(1) In all cases where the method was applied, the impact of the plant’s operations on biodiversity was negligible; indeed, the contribution to the Anthropic Pressure Index (API) of each of the four plants analyzed is less than 1%. Protected areas (national, regional, site of Community interest, special protection zone, oasis, etc.) are geographically defined areas designated, regulated or managed to achieve specific preservation objectives. Areas of high biodiversity value are not subject to legal protection, but they are recognized by a number of governmental and non-governmental organizations as having significant biodiversity.

OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL INDICATORS 

CNH Industrial also focuses on other indicators, such as the reduction of hazardous substances and of the external noise generated by equipment and manufacturing processes.

As regards PCBs and PCTs, CNH Industrial completed the elimination process of these hazardous substances in 2012.

Substances of particular relevance to health and the environment

In 2013, CNH Industrial continued to examine the research into and application of alternative solutions to replace the substances used at Company plants identified as particularly relevant to health and the environment.

These substances were significantly reduced in all Company processes by reformulating products, and by introducing nano-ceramic products and silane compounds to replace products containing heavy metals.

These measures have specifically led to the total elimination of nickel salts in almost every Agricultural and Construction Equipment plant.

External noise generated by plants

In 2013, CNH Industrial confirmed its commitment to minimizing the impact of the noise emissions generated by its plants, as per the provisions of the Guidelines, according to the procedures of the environmental management systems adopted at plant level, and in line with the specific policies issued in recent years (such as the guideline for the design and purchase of new equipment with lower noise emissions).

 

GRI-G4
DMA; EN20; EN21; EN8; EN24; DMA; EN11; EN12;EN13; EN14;
Sustainability Plan

Our commitments on page Our Commitment to Sustainability

Glossary
Biodiversity, DMA, IUCN Red List, PCB, EMEA, NAFTA, NOX, SOX, VOC, EMEA, KPI, ODS, SAD