Product development

product development CNH IndustrialCNH Industrial’s commitment, as stated in the Code of Conduct * and in the Environmental Guidelines *, is to develop and offer its customers high performing products with low fuel consumption, thus maximizing productivity and minimizing environmental impact. As evidenced by the materiality analysis, the issues central to both CNH Industrial and its stakeholders are those concerning the products themselves, especially user safety, product quality, and environmental impact. Indeed, customers use CNH Industrial products for work purposes, and their safety and efficiency of use increases productivity and brand loyalty. Many of the targets are set out in the Sustainability Plan (see also pages 113-115) and are included as individual goals in the Performance and Leadership Management system (see also page 46).

The highest responsibility for initiatives regarding all aspects of CNH Industrial products lies with the Global Product Committee (GPC), which is made up of all members of the Group Executive Council (GEC) and reports directly to the Chief Executive Officer. All aspects related to the findings of the materiality analysis, environmental awareness, and safety standards are accounted for during product design, which is overseen by Product Development and Engineering. CNH Industrial adopts an ecodesign approach, employing solutions in the design phase that aid product dismantling and remanufacturing (see also page 204), and the recycling of end-of-life products differentiated by type of material.

The process of designing a new product is set out in Global Product Development (GPD), common to all brands, which guides and monitors all stages of the design process and evaluates their effectiveness. Priority is given to the use of easily recyclable materials, especially recoverable metals, such as aluminum and cast iron, thermoplastics, and paints with low solvent content. The information on component composition is available in the International Material Data System (IMDS) online database (see also page 154), which also specifies the substances listed in the European regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH), and flags the presence of Substances of Very High Concern (SVHC). The database monitors the data entered by suppliers in real time, and generates an alert if an SVHC is detected, while enabling the search for a substitute.

CNH Industrial is increasingly focusing on the environmental impact of the entire life cycle of its products.

During 2013, FPT Industrial launched a pilot project to assess the carbon footprint of the F1C diesel engine.

This project is the first step towards the adoption of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, which assesses the energy consumption and environmental impact throughout the product life cycle, and not just the greenhouse gas emissions as in carbon footprint calculations.

OUR APPROACH

At CNH Industrial, the development and launch of new products is managed through dedicated platform teams for each product class. Coordinated by the Product Development and Engineering department, platform teams are responsible for management of the entire product life cycle, from development of new products to maintenance of existing products.

Each team is composed of representatives from the following functions: 

  • Brand – definition of market requirements, including regional variations
  • Product Engineering – product design and fulfillment of technical requirements
  • Design Analysis & Simulation – virtual analysis of product
  • Product Validation – product validation and certification
  • Manufacturing – planning and preparation for production
  • Purchasing – procurement of parts and materials from external suppliers (time, cost and quality)
  • Parts & Service – management of spare parts
  • Product Quality & Technical Support – monitoring correct implementation of processes to ensure quality of final product
  • Finance – monitoring budget and investment, analyzing profitability of new product programs and related activities.

 

GLOBAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
GLOBAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS
The platform teams follow a standardized Global Product Development (GPD) process, which itself is subject to continuous monitoring and revision. Although application is standardized across geographic regions, the process allows for variations in product specifications to meet local requirements, including those specific to emerging markets. GPD consists of six phases, each consisting of a set of activities and deliverables that are assigned to one or more functions. The milestones at the end of each phase consist of reviews to determine whether the objectives have been met before the decision is made to continue to the next phase. This approach facilitates optimized resource planning, allocation of investment, setting of clear objectives, improved ability to forecast and manage risk and, ultimately, development of a quality product.

Prior to the start of the GPD Process is Pre Program Activity, which includes an evaluation of customer requirements and a preliminary estimate of time and cost. The Customer-Driven Product Definition process (CDPD) – which analyzes the needs of and feedback from the brand’s customers – plays a major role in this phase. At the Product Change Request (PCR) milestone, the first in the process, the product profile is formalized and a research and design budget established.

Following approval of the PCR, the Program Planning phase is then initiated. Deliverables for this phase include an in-depth market analysis (customer segmentation, volumes, price and content offered by competitors), development of a risk assessment matrix, an initial cost estimate (both R&D and launch) and an analysis of expected financial returns. A catalogue of key systems/components is also compiled and style theme is selected.

The deliverables for this phase are designed to enable early identification and resolution of the majority of potential future issues, thereby providing a solid base for the best possible project outcome and a quality final product. The achievement milestone for this phase is Program Initiation (PI).

Once PI has been approved, the Develop Concept phase then begins. Deliverables for this phase include creation of the first virtual prototype for validation of technical content and review/identification of patent requirements. A critical parts list is prepared together with identification/analysis of potential supply issues/ constraints and the need to involve suppliers in the design process. The Manufacturing department begins planning actions necessary for configuration of the production line. Completion of all deliverables to be done in this Phase is verified as part of the Concept Review (CR) milestone, which marks/represents definition of the principal technical solutions for the vehicle’s main systems.

The next step in the process, the Prove Feasibility phase, consists of more than 40 deliverables including virtual and physical validation activities to confirm the feasibility of the concept, finalization and release of parts plan, style design freeze and definition of the manufacturing project plan.

The Program Approval (PA) milestone which completes this phase is particularly important because it serves as the decision point for proceeding with the full investment program and setting targets (time, cost, quality) that will be used as benchmarks for final evaluation of the project.

The next phase is Optimization, which includes deliverables for sub-system and component testing, software validation, as well as definition of the critical-for-launch components list. During this phase, Product Validation verifies the design on full prototypes called Development Builds, and Product Engineering then releases design details so that other functions (primarily Purchasing, Manufacturing and Parts & Service) can complete sourcing, production planning, and parts stocking based on the validated final design. Achievement of the Design Release (DR) milestone represents completion of this phase.

The next step, the Verification phase, consists of more than 20 deliverables which cover areas such as product safety, training of plant personnel, drafting of owner and maintenance manuals, and product certification. This phase includes the Production Change-Over (PCO) milestone, which formalizes production phase-out for existing components and production phase-in of components for the replacement product.

This milestone is also critical because phase-out of production of components for the existing product could result in a suspension in production and supply to the sales network in the event of a delay in launch of the new product. Other activities during this phase include the evaluation of training needs for the sales network and customer product trials. The phase concludes with achievement of the OK to Build (OKTB) milestone, following verification that the plant, including equipment and employees, are ready for production launch.

The Implementation phase can then be launched with deliverables ranging from final validation of safety, product certification, quality and availability of spare parts. This phase concludes with achievement of the OK to Ship milestone (OKTS), which authorizes shipment to dealers and customers.

The length of the product development process varies by business line and amount of new content and can range from 18 to 36 months. Where necessary, further product improvement activities (i.e., cost reductions or resolution of any critical issues arising post-launch) may continue after product launch, until targets are met.

The platform teams maintain responsibility for improvement of current products, establishing action plans for achievement of quality and cost reduction targets together with timing for implementation.

 In all phases of the GPD, maximum priority has been given to:

  • using recycled materials and eliminating hazardous substances
  • reducing the environmental impact of products during use
  • implementing high safety standards
  • optimizing ergonomics and comfort.

THE F1 ENGINE CARBON FOOTPRINT FPT
Industrial launched a project in 2013 to assess the carbon footprint of the F1 engine, in order to quantify CO2 emissions during the product’s life cycle and implement mitigation measures. The F1 is a light diesel engine for commercial vehicles manufactured at the Foggia plant (Italy). The first phase of the project, completed at the end of 2013, focused only on cradle-to-gate emissions, i.e., from raw material extraction to the factory gate, excluding use and end-of-life phases.
The robustness of the assessment model has yielded reliable and qualitatively significant data; as a result, the study can serve as a foundation for a more in-depth analysis, to be followed by appropriate measures for reducing overall greenhouse gas emissions during the engine’s manufacturing phase. The project will continue with the analysis of the engine’s use and end-of-life phases, reaching completion in 2014.

REDUCTION OF PRODUCT EMISSIONS

Since the use phase of its products can generate up to 85% of the CO2 emissions of their entire life cycle1, CNH Industrial strives to ensure a portfolio of products ever more eco-designed, performant and environmentally friendly, by increasing efficiency and by reducing consumption and subsequent polluting and CO2 emissions.

Given that the latest regulations in force have reduced polluting emissions, i.e., nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, to the minimum measurable levels, the challenge for the future is to reduce CO2 emissions by optimizing the management of the energy produced by vehicles.

POLLUTING EMISSIONS

The quantity of pollutants produced by combustion is regulated by a series of standards that progressively reduce the maximum amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) permitted. The European Union (EU) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), along with emerging countries such as China, are adopting increasingly stringent standards to reduce air pollution. The body of laws regulating emission levels includes Euro standards for heavy commercial vehicles and buses, and EPA Tier standards and EU Stage standards for agricultural and construction equipment.

EMISSIONS STANDARD
ENGINES FOR ON-ROAD/OFF-ROAD VEHICLES

ENGINES FOR ON-ROAD/OFF-ROAD VEHICLES

Diesel engine combustion produces a series of pollutants, including NOX and PM; their levels in exhaust gases depend mainly on the temperature of the combustion chamber, determined in the design phase of the engine.

NOX gases are produced at about 1,600°C, while almost all PM particles burn at high temperatures. A choice must therefore be made between optimized combustion, producing less PM but more NOX, or less efficient combustion, with the emission of fewer NOX and more PM. Lower PM levels are achievable with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), which must be periodically regenerated because of particulate build-up over time, while two systems allow cutting NOX emissions. The first is Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), in which exhaust gases are recirculated in the combustion chamber to lower its temperature, thus reducing NOX.

emissionsThe system, however, penalizes engine efficiency and increases particulate production, thus requiring frequent DPF regeneration. The second system is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), which maintains optimized combustion and reduces NOX emissions through the addition of a reductant (ammonia, obtained from AdBlue). This produces little PM and requires less frequent DPF regeneration.

Since 2005, FPT Industrial has developed and introduced a SCR system that uses AdBlue, a urea and demineralized water solution, for NOX reduction: the exhaust gases pass through the AdBlue, which reacts in the presence of a catalyst, decomposing NOX into non-polluting molecules (O2 and N2). The solution, known as the ECOBlue™ HI-eSCR system and adopted by New Holland Agriculture on its high power tractors, received the AE50 award in 2013 from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

In the off-road engine sector, the Company will continue to rely on SCR technology for high-power engines, while Compact Light CEGR technology with an Exhaust Gas Recirculation system will be adopted for engines below 88 kW. Construction equipment sold by CNH Industrial complies with Tier 2 standards or above in all markets where the Company operates.

During 2013, the range of Tier 4A/Stage IlIB products sold comprised:

  • 134 agricultural equipment models 
  • 91 construction equipment models.

For its on-road engines, FPT Industrial has patented the High Efficiency SCR (HI-eSCR) system, enabling compliance with Euro VI standards prior to their commencement date. HI-eSCR uses an innovative emission control system that enables active AdBlue dosing thanks to a network of integrated sensors that monitor the levels of nitrogen and ammonia. The main advantages consist in the increased reliability and low operating costs, owing to less engine wear and longer intervals between scheduled maintenance (up to 150 thousand kilometers) and oil changes. In addition, the Hi-eSCR engine and exhaust gas after-treatment system have a simple and compact design, reducing weight and installation space.

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CO2 EMISSIONS

CNH Industrial endeavors to manufacture products with ever-greater efficiency and ever-lower CO2 emissions by:

  • optimizing consumption and energy efficiency (see also page 138) 
  • increasing the use of alternative fuels (see also page 139) 
  • developing non-conventional propulsion systems (see also page 142) 
  • offering telematics systems that improve productivity (see also page 143) 
  • helping customers to use vehicles as efficiently as possible (see also page 203).

 co2 emissions

Optimizing energy consumption and efficiency

It is essential to increase product performance and reduce running costs for all CNH Industrial business segments, thus boosting customers’ productivity.

Optimizing energy consumption and efficiencyWith the aim of optimizing performance and reducing environmental impact, the series of on-road diesel engines compliant with Euro V and with the even more stringent Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEV) standards were equipped with a closed suction system, a feature maintained in the Euro VI series as well. Furthermore, to prevent oil mist dispersion into engine blow-by gases, high performance oilseparation systems were introduced to minimize any risk of contamination of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Engine-out particulate emission rates are already low thanks to the optimized combustion regime, which makes forced DPF regeneration unnecessary.

This is important in terms of fuel consumption and periodic servicing. In addition, since the engine only receives clean filtered air rather than recirculated exhaust gases, engine wear is minimal and oil change intervals are longer, reducing the environmental impact associated with waste oil disposal. Similar systems are also adopted in off-road diesel engines compliant with Tier 4A/Stage IIIB standards. It is important to note that 75% of currently manufactured FPT Industrial engines comply with the latest emission levels.

The CNH Industrial Agricultural Equipment segment continues to offer innovative products that increase productivity by decreasing the amount of work required to perform a task, hence cutting fuel consumption. In 2013, the Case IH Austoft Multi-Row sugarcane harvester received the Gold Gerdau Best of the Land award for its revolutionary advancement in sugarcane harvesting technology. Thanks to its unique patented line divider system, the A8800 sugarcane harvester offers the flexibility of accommodating a variety of row-spacings. The innovation is a first in sugarcane harvesting and an incredible advancement for sugarcane growers who can now vary row spacing to optimize yield and significantly reduce inputs like fuel, fertilizer, and pesticides at the same time. The A8800 also offers further fuel savings through the use of factory installed Case IH SmartCruise software, which optimizes fuel consumption at lower load levels. Previously, sugarcane growers were only able to use single-row sugarcane harvesters if experimenting with different row-spacing. For many farmers, this innovation means fuel-efficient harvesting while fully realizing the benefits and flexibility of optimized row spacing.

The Case IH Steiger Quadtrac 620 received the DLV (German Agricultural Publishers) award for Machine of the Year at Agritechnica 2013, and the Silver Innovation award at the InterAGRO 2013 trade show in Kiev, Ukraine. The revolutionary four-tracked design provides unbeatable control and traction even in wet conditions while reducing soil compaction at the same time. At nearly 700 maximum horsepower, the Case IH Quadtrac 620 is the flagship of the Case IH Efficient Power line-up: it is the highest horsepower tractor in the Case IH fleet and can pull the largest implements with incredible fuel efficiency. Bigger implements mean covering more rows in fewer passes, with impressive fuel and time savings.

Optimizing energy consumption and efficiencyIn 2013, New Holland’s Opti-SpeedTM strawwalker technology received the silver medal in Innovation at Agritechnica. This new system increases productivity by up to 10%, automatically varying the speed of the strawwalker according to the slope of the land and the type of crop, giving the operator four preset options to choose from. The strawwalker’s lower speeds make it particularly suitable for harvesting corn on flat ground, increasing productivity by as much as 20%. This technology also received an AE50 award from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers.

The innovative Cornrower for Maize Header also received the silver medal at Agritechnica. The system, which can also be installed on traditional corn headers, results in uniform windrows of finely cut stalks and leaves. Such fine shredding improves pressing and so boosts bale density by up to 15%, which also improves combustion and fermentation, ideal for producing energy from biomass. Moreover, this system enables biomass harvesting and windrowing in a single pass, thus saving fuel and keeping soil compaction to a minimum. Any lost grains fall directly onto the windrow, so bales used as fodder have a higher nutritional content. Because they are finely chopped, the corn leaves and stalks release their moisture more rapidly, thus reducing the time between chopping and baling. Shredded stalks and leaves can also be used as absorbent material in animal bedding, or as a supplement that, mixed with hydrated lime and water, can help reduce the cost of fodder by as much as 40% compared to conventional corn silage.

In the Construction Equipment segment, CNH Industrial’s products also aim at working more efficiently with a lower environmental impact. In 2013, New Holland Construction introduced new products fitted with Eco mode, for fuel consumption control and regulation, and cutting-edge solutions for low emission transmissions. The E215C excavator, for example, consumes on average nine liters of fuel per hour, and seldom more than 11 liters per hour even during heavy excavations. Case’s new CX75SR and CX80C midi excavators, on the other hand, have 9% more hydraulic power, and the presence of high capacity hydraulic pumps enable shorter cycle times and a 3% increase in digging force. The Case Construction Equipment M Series dozers are 9-16% more powerful, with over 10% savings in fuel consumption and a 19% increase in overall productivity.

In 2013, Case and New Holland unveiled new wheel loaders for waste management. Case launched two Waste Handler wheel loader models, also in Europe, capable of outstanding traction under any conditions, resulting in longer intervals between maintenance and prolonged tire life. In addition, these loaders are able to lift greater loads, allowing for the use of solid tires, increasingly in demand in waste and scrap handling sites to prevent the risk of flat tires. New Holland Construction, on the other hand, launched a new version of the W170C Recycler wheel loader, with exceptionally low fuel consumption (10 liters per hour, and the best payload in its class). Its most interesting new features include greater pushing power and faster work cycles, achieved through ECOSHIFT five-speed transmission, enhanced tire grip, and reduced tire wear thanks to heavy duty axles with open differentials and 100% front lock. In addition, the ECO mode and ECOSTOP function enable lower fuel consumption.

For road transport, the Stralis Hi-Way Euro VI offers a 2.33% reduction in fuel consumption compared to the previous Euro V version. These fuel savings were certified by TÜV, one of Europe’s leading technical certification centers, and made possible by the HI-eSCR system and the aerodynamic streamlining introduced with the new cab. The tests carried out compared two EcoStralis models: the new Stralis Hi-Way on-road tractor, equipped with a 460 hp Euro VI Cursor 11 engine, and a similar vehicle of the previous generation, equipped with a 460 hp Euro V Cursor 10 engine.

passenger transportFor passenger transport, Iveco Bus launched the new Euro VI range in 2013, completely redesigned around the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO). The current range comprises three bus categories (city, intercity and tourist) and, depending on model and use, boasts savings in fuel consumption between 5 and 10% compared to Euro V vehicles. The TCO was reduced by making vehicles lighter, more efficient, and even more reliable and easier to service. Indeed, all components are designed to be easily and rapidly replaced, and many components are common across the entire range, hence easier to locate and competitively priced. Moreover, the adoption of innovative components means much longer servicing intervals (the DPF may not need replacing for up to four years), which helps keeping the TCO down. More efficient combustion enabled by the adoption of the Hi-eSCR system has improved fuel economy, so cutting emissions. In addition, passenger comfort has been enhanced by reducing noise by 50%, increasing space on board by 10%, and providing larger windows.

Alternative fuels

The main constituent of natural gas (NG) is methane (between 83% and 99%), and, for CNH Industrial, its immediate usability makes it the most promising alternative fuel. Whether in the form of gas (CNG) or liquefied (LNG), the basic fuel is the same; what changes is the method of storage, distribution, and use in vehicles. Its main features make natural gas a strategic fuel: 

  • minimal harmful emissions, from particulate matter (practically none) to aldehydes (-50% compared with diesel)
  • minimal emission of air pollutants (-50% NOX and -90% PM compared with diesel)
  • more than 80% fewer ozone-generating agents than conventional fuels
  • 5% fewer CO2 emissions compared with diesel
  • can be used with current production technologies
  • renewable source (if derived from biomass)
  • one of the best well-to-wheel fuels (-24% CO2 emissions).

CNH Industrial’s interest in natural gas (NG) fuel goes back many years, as testified by Iveco’s first investments in research on natural gas propulsion dating back to before 1988, the year when natural gas was first tested in heavy duty diesel engines, leading to the development of the first-ever methane powered Daily prototype in 1995.

FPT Industrial currently offers three series of NG engines, which are used for Iveco vehicles and those of third party customers. In 2013 alone, the company supplied 1,200 CNG engines (350 Cursor 8 engines and 850 NEF 6 engines), for an equivalent number of buses, to the Beijing Public Transportation Company (BPTC), with which the Company has collaborated for ten years.

All FPT Industrial NG engines (F1C, NEF 6 and Cursor 8) are equipped with Company-designed control systems, multi-point fuel injection systems to guarantee the highest level of precision fuel delivery, and a combustion chamber that ensures maximum stability of the combustion process. The use of methane significantly cuts operating costs, while the three-way catalyst reduces exhaust gases. Compared with traditional diesel engines, the NG engines manufactured by FPT Industrial cut particulate emissions by more than 90% and comply with Euro VI standards.

 homologation limits

The variety of FPT industrial natural gas engines allows Iveco to offer the most comprehensive range of commercial and industrial natural gas vehicles on the market. Customers can find anything from light commercial vehicles, such as the New Daily Natural Power, to the Stralis LNG Natural Power, which received the 2013 Europäischen Transportpreis für Nachhaltigkeit award in Germany for transport sustainability. The advantages of natural gas are both environmental and financial: a Stralis LNG, for example, can reduce the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) by 15% compared to a diesel truck, and is suitable for the distribution of goods at regional and national level. Market opportunities for these vehicles are particularly promising in sectors such as food and beverages, fuel transportation, logistics, and overnight deliveries, because electronic ignition engines reduce noise levels by three to six decibels compared with equivalent diesel engines.

The low environmental impact of natural gas also makes it the ideal fuel for public transport. Iveco Bus offers the option of a compressed natural gas powered Urbanway bus with Cursor 8 CNG engine. This Euro VI engine allows transport providers to extend their fleets with CNG buses that have the same technology as Euro V / EEV vehicles.

 natural gas-powered

NATURAL GAS POWERED VEHICLES SOLD

CNH INDUSTRIAL WORLDWIDE (no.)
 201320122011
Bus CNG (Cursor 8 engine)308324318
Heavy range (Stralis CNG – Cursor 8 engine)228164170
of which Stralis LNG – Cursor 8 engine8715-
Medium range (Eurocargo Natural Power – NEF 6 engine)653324
Light range (Daily Natural Power – F1C engine)1,451915471
Total2,0521,436983

Unfortunately, the lack of a consistent fueling infrastructure network across Europe remains an obstacle to realizing the full potential of natural gas as an alternative fuel. However, the growing commitment at European Union (EU), national, and regional levels to creating this infrastructure is encouraging, especially if real investments follow. As a first step, the European Union has set the objective of increasing the share of biofuels and alternative fuels in the transport sector by 10% and 20%, respectively, by 2020. To reach this objective, the European Commission has launched several initiatives including Blue Corridors, aimed at creating a distribution network with CNG and LNG fueling stations every 150 and 400 kilometers, respectively. The first of these will be the four-year LNG Blue Corridors project. It will connect twelve EU member states through four priority corridors, along which LNG fueling stations will be strategically positioned. The main goal is to promote the use of LNG in long distance heavy transport, with the realization of 14 new LNG fueling stations, and a fleet of approximately one hundred LNG heavy vehicles transiting along the four corridors.

The project involves truck manufactures, fuel suppliers, the distribution network, and fleet owners. Iveco is participating by supplying approximately thirty Stralis LNG vehicles.

The current availability of technologies enabling the independent production of biomethane also makes natural gas engines an attractive option for tractors. In fact, biogas from waste agricultural biomass can easily be exploited to produce 98- 99% pure methane. The biomethane currently produced on site is used to generate energy, but could also be used to fuel tractors, provided they are equipped with engines suitable for natural gas.

New Holland Agriculture unveiled a prototype T6.140 Methane Power tractor at Agritechnica 2013, which enjoys all of the features of a standard tractor, and is a key step toward the realization of an energy-independent farm powered by biomethane.

The compressed methane is stored in nine tanks that are perfectly integrated into the overall design, guaranteeing the same visibility and operational ground clearance as standard models. The tanks’ 50-kilo capacity delivers approximately half a day of autonomy during normal operation, backed up with a 15-liter reserve tank. The tractor’s three-way catalyst alone ensures Tier 4B compliance, without the need for additional after-treatment systems. When running on biomethane, the tractor’s carbon footprint is virtually zero, with savings of 25-40% compared with the cost of conventional fuels.

 

NATURAL GAS POWERED VEHICLES SOLD

CNH INDUSTRIAL WORLDWIDE (no.)
 201320122011
Bus CNG (Cursor 8 engine)308324318
Heavy range (Stralis CNG – Cursor 8 engine)228164170
of which Stralis LNG – Cursor 8 engine8715-
Medium range (Eurocargo Natural Power – NEF 6 engine)653324
Light range (Daily Natural Power – F1C engine)1,451915471
Total2,0521,436983

Unfortunately, the lack of a consistent fueling infrastructure network across Europe remains an obstacle to realizing the full potential of natural gas as an alternative fuel. However, the growing commitment at European Union (EU), national, and regional levels to creating this infrastructure is encouraging, especially if real investments follow. As a first step, the European Union has set the objective of increasing the share of biofuels and alternative fuels in the transport sector by 10% and 20%, respectively, by 2020. To reach this objective, the European Commission has launched several initiatives including Blue Corridors, aimed at creating a distribution network with CNG and LNG fueling stations every 150 and 400 kilometers, respectively. The first of these will be the four-year LNG Blue Corridors project. It will connect twelve EU member states through four priority corridors, along which LNG fueling stations will be strategically positioned. The main goal is to promote the use of LNG in long distance heavy transport, with the realization of 14 new LNG fueling stations, and a fleet of approximately one hundred LNG heavy vehicles transiting along the four corridors.

The project involves truck manufactures, fuel suppliers, the distribution network, and fleet owners. Iveco is participating by supplying approximately thirty Stralis LNG vehicles.

The current availability of technologies enabling the independent production of biomethane also makes natural gas engines an attractive option for tractors. In fact, biogas from waste agricultural biomass can easily be exploited to produce 98- 99% pure methane. The biomethane currently produced on site is used to generate energy, but could also be used to fuel tractors, provided they are equipped with engines suitable for natural gas.

New Holland Agriculture unveiled a prototype T6.140 Methane Power tractor at Agritechnica 2013, which enjoys all of the features of a standard tractor, and is a key step toward the realization of an energy-independent farm powered by biomethane.

The compressed methane is stored in nine tanks that are perfectly integrated into the overall design, guaranteeing the same visibility and operational ground clearance as standard models. The tanks’ 50-kilo capacity delivers approximately half a day of autonomy during normal operation, backed up with a 15-liter reserve tank. The tractor’s three-way catalyst alone ensures Tier 4B compliance, without the need for additional after-treatment systems. When running on biomethane, the tractor’s carbon footprint is virtually zero, with savings of 25-40% compared with the cost of conventional fuels.

A TANK FULL OF CNG DIRECTLY TO YOUR DOORSTEP
At Transpotec 2013, BRC FuelMaker and Iveco presented fleet owners with an on-site tank refill system for CNG vehicles, which was well received by companies interested in autonomous supplies and in avoiding long waits at conventional fueling stations, or without easy access to them. The system consists of an electric compressor connected to the natural gas distribution network, and located on site at company facilities. 
Refills require a few hours, depending on capacity: the cylinders of a Daily CNG, for example, can be filled at night, on company premises. Furthermore, the installation safety requirements are simple and easy to implement.

CNH Industrial also follows other technological trends related to fuels from renewable resources. Indeed, a number of its products can already be fueled with biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. As regards biodiesel, the Tier 4A/Stage IIIB engines produced by FPT Industrial are compatible with biodiesel mixed with 20% diesel (B20), if the blend meets the requirements defined by the EN14214:2009 standard. New Holland Agriculture, which has used biodiesel since 2006, endorses the use of B20 blends for all new Tier 4 ECOBlue™ SCR engines, provided that the blends comply with the EN14214:2009 standard and are used according to the owner and maintenance manuals. All engines used by Case IH are compatible with B5 Biodiesel, and Case IH supports 100% biodiesel (B100) and B20 in most medium-to high horsepower tractors, combines, windrowers, sprayers and cotton pickers. When supplies are available, Case IH equipment even ships from the factory with a biodiesel blend in the tank. Iveco vehicles can use biodiesel mixed with up to 7% fossil diesel, without any modifications required. FPT Industrial is focusing its research on second-generation biofuels, particularly Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) and Biomass to Liquid (BTL).

Alternative traction systems

The sustainable mobility of goods is the subject of much discussion, especially concerning the last leg of the supply chain: that is, the last mile of urban deliveries. In 2011, the European Union recommended reorganizing the interface between long distance and last mile freights, suggesting the use of low emission urban trucks.

“The use of electric, hydrogen and hybrid technologies would not only reduce air emissions, but also noise, allowing a greater portion of freight transport within the urban areas to take place at night time. This would ease the problem of road congestion during morning and afternoon peak hours1”. In line with the recommendation of the European Commission, Trucks and Commercial Vehicles segment offers not only natural gas powered engines, but also diesel-electric hybrid technology for combined driving and passenger transport, and pure electric drive vehicles for last miles.

Alternative traction systemsHybrid traction can be generated by either an electric or diesel engine, or a combination of the two.

For the transport of goods, Iveco offers its Eurocargo hybrid, designed for urban distribution and pickups without sacrificing high-speed performance, while saving up to 30% on urban driving fuel consumption compared to vehicles with conventional diesel engines.

Since 1990, Iveco Bus has offered a number of diesel-electric hybrid solutions for the transport of passengers. In 2014, it will equip the hybrid version of the new Urbanway passenger bus with a Euro VI engine and enhance it with new features such as the Arrive & Go system, which allows for fully electric arrivals and departures at bus stops, with no noise or gas emissions. The environmental impact of the urban passenger hybrid transport system has been very positive: average fuel consumption and CO2 emissions have been reduced by up to 35% compared with an equivalent dieselonly engine. A 35% decrease in CO2 emissions equals approximately 500 grams less CO2 per kilometer, or a reduction of approximately 25 tons per year for an annual mileage of 50 thousand kilometers (average value for a city bus).

Alternative traction systemsFor twenty years now, Iveco has offered electric traction vehicles with emissions close to zero, ideal for urban goods deliveries: the first Daily Electric, in fact, dates back to 1986. Currently, Iveco’s New Daily Electric offers significantly enhanced electric drive features. Particular attention was given to the choice of batteries, which are lightweight, high-performance, maintenance-free, and all parts are completely reusable at the end of battery life. The vehicle has up to 130 km of autonomy, as demonstrated on an urban cycle. After passing a number of tests, the Daily Electric won the Alternative Drives innovation award at the KEP-Transporter des Jahres 2013 competition for courier, express, and parcel delivery vans. The Daily was selected based on a variety of criteria, especially the importance Trucks and Commercial Vehicles attributes to electric drives, including in the 3.5 - 5.2 ton segment. The vehicle also stood out for its wide product range, and for distinctive features such as the ease of vehicle outfitting, and the size and comfort of the internal cab.

Moreover, with testing taking place in Brazil, the Daily Electric is destined to become the first zero-emission light commercial vehicle produced in Latin America.

 

ELLISUP: TOMORROW’S BUS CONCEPT
During the 2013 Busworld Kortrijk trade fair, Iveco presented the ELLISUP Concept Bus project, controlled by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), and directed by Iveco Bus in collaboration with several partners. The objective of the project is to develop a new electric bus solution, capable of operating in full electric mode along an entire service line, and rapidly recharging in a matter of minutes at the end of the line. ELLISUP is equipped with electric motors developed by Michelin and housed above four of the eight wheels reduced in dimension, and uses an innovative energy storage solution characterized by high power density and great durability. The electric power allows for zero emissions and full noise abatement. Reduced wheel size enables a new architecture that differs completely from that of a traditional bus, with a larger and more functional interior space that optimizes the flow of passengers when boarding and exiting the bus.
The new design also allows for larger windows that further increase passenger comfort.

Technology and telematics

CNH Industrial deploys telematics systems in precision agriculture, in monitoring construction equipment and in on-road vehicles, so optimizing their use. The resulting increase in productivity also brings positive environmental impacts: from lower polluting emissions, to the accurate dosing of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation. Technology and telematics

Precision farming management revolves around intelligent farming solutions, and is based on the collection and application of a series of data to optimize the entire agricultural cycle: plowing, fertilizing, sowing, and harvesting.

Case IH Advanced Farming System® (AFS) products are designed to maximize uptime and make the most of short field windows during critical seasons. Case IH AFS comprises a complete offering of precision technologies to improve productivity and agronomic performance while minimizing input costs and managing risk. New Holland Precision Land Management™ (PLM) also offers a full range of precision farming solutions that can be tailored to suit the customers’ needs, and that help improve yields, control input costs and increase productivity. PLM eliminates overlaps, increases yield potential, and reduces waste with IntelliRate™ Section Control and variable rate control. Agricultural equipment is fitted with a localization and data transmission system, and with a series of sensors. These sensors evaluate the composition and humidity of each square meter of soil, and read leaf colors to determine their chlorophyll content, which serves as an indicator of the crop’s maturity, and of the estimated quality and quantity of the harvest. The system avoids skips and overlaps, and ensures parallel tracking when working both in curved and straight tracks, on either flat or undulating ground. Furthermore, single passes prevent excessive soil compaction. The system enables operations in dusty environments, in difficult weather conditions, and at night. The assisted driving system, if present, also provides for hands-free steering, thus enabling the operator to concentrate on maneuvering the apparatus.

The data collected by the telematics system can assist in planning for maximum crop yields.

CNH Industrial has devised an innovative telematics system for construction equipment as well. It uses a GPS satellite localizer to monitor fleet equipment remotely, identifying its position and quantifying its usage.

This allows maximizing fleet distribution across construction sites, therefore increasing efficiency and optimizing consumption and emissions. The GPS display installed in the cab provides the operator with most of the data required for an operation. The system enables positioning the equipment more accurately and reducing the amount of materials to be handled, cutting operating costs. It also allows monitoring the status of the vehicle, thus optimizing maintenance and technical support.

The IVECONNECT system, on the other hand, was realized for on-road vehicles to simplify and integrate the management of infotainment, telephony, navigation and driving assistance devices, and of fleet management services. The ergonomic interface and the 7-inch touchscreen display make working on-board safe, efficient, and comfortable. The system includes the Driving Style Evaluation software, which provides commercial vehicle drivers with real-time assistance to optimize fuel consumption. The system analyzes the signals and data transmitted by the propulsion system, vehicle, and GPS, and sends them to the on-board display. It then provides an overall assessment of the impact of driving style on fuel consumption, as well as tips to reduce the latter. The fleet version allows for the remote assessment of fuel consumption associated with the driving style of each fleet driver. The navigator can automatically calculate the best route based on vehicle size and mass, and provide information on traffic conditions and on the nearest mechanic or dealer. Furthermore, if necessary, the system can connect to customer assistance with one click, and automatically provide useful information while receiving indications as to the estimated time of arrival of a technician. The system is also connected to the Driver Attention Support, which alerts the driver if tiredness is detected (see also page 145).

             

PRODUCT ERGONOMICS AND SAFE USE

Protecting operators during their work has always been a key factor in CNH Industrial’s design and product development. In fact, the Company strives not only to ensure and comply with high safety standards, but also to direct its innovations according to the cognitive understanding of users. Company products serve as work equipment, hence the simpler the interaction between operator and machine, the safer the task performed.

Furthermore, construction and agricultural equipment is often used under difficult circumstances: steep slopes and extreme weather conditions require products that guarantee total safety and maximum comfort, to minimize the risk of human error caused by excessive fatigue. For this reason, all CNH Industrial products are designed to shift the user’s attention from how a machine works to how a task is done. Furthermore, ergonomics are combined with comfort for increasingly intuitive and user-friendly controls. Spacious and quiet cabs, fewer vibrations, good climate control, and radio systems with Bluetooth for hands-free calls are just some of the features that enable the operator to work with greater ease.

As stated in the Code of Conduct, CNH Industrial is committed to producing and selling, in full compliance with legal and regulatory requirements, products of the highest standard in terms of environmental and safety performance. The individual components crucial for safety are identified right from the design phase, in the technical drawings, and subjected to closer and specific assessments (e.g., dynamic calculations, structural analysis, laboratory tests, static and dynamic vehicle testing, and type approval testing). In accordance with the quality policy and additional internal procedures, workstations handling safety components during production are clearly marked, and the personnel responsible for working on, or inspecting, safety components are suitably trained. Safety components are also labelled to ensure traceability in the event of intervention or recall campaigns (see also page 200).

In agriculture, safety is vital, not only when working in the fields, but also when travelling by road from one field to another. In this case, technologies such as ABS make tractors safer when on the road by enhancing brake performance, thus improving maneuverability and enhancing vehicle safety when working at an incline.

For tractors with trailers, the Intelligent Braking System automatically adjusts the braking force exerted onto the trailer according to the deceleration of the tractor, preventing the risk of skidding.

Systems such as Active StopStart by New Holland Agriculture, adopted especially for high-power tractors working in the fields, prevent the tractor from moving after coming to a halt, even if heavily loaded or on a steep slope. All CNH Industrial tractors are supplied with a Falling Object Protection System (FOPS) to protect the cab and operator from objects falling from above, which is a very common risk when working with a front loader or in potentially hazardous areas. Tractors are also equipped with long-range video cameras, connected to the on-board display, that transfer rear and side view images of the tractor; this increases safety considerably when operating particularly large equipment or very long trailers, and avoids the need for the operator to continually turn around to check maneuvers. New technologies are widespread in New Holland’s new range of Braud 9000 multi-function harvesters. The operator’s safety is enhanced by an onboard diagnostics system, which detects and alerts the operator in case of major anomalies, and automatically stops the machine or switches off the self-leveling system to prevent potentially dangerous situations. Vehicle stability is also continually monitored, and the operator alerted if the vehicle approaches its stability threshold.

The machine’s height and lateral position are also adjusted automatically, with zero operator input, to prevent possible accidents and to increase overall safety when harvesting, even when operating on the most challenging and undulating ground, and during road transportation. Operator fatigue and product complexity are leading causes of occupational accidents, so all Case IH products are designed for optimal comfort even after many hours, and with an intuitive design to simplify product use. Features like LED lights can double visibility for work performed at night, swivel seats reduce back and neck strain, and suspended cabs give operators a smoother ride to focus better and stay alert longer. The design of all CNH Industrial brands takes into account not only the need for safety when machines are running and in movement, but also the daily maintenance requirements.

Almost all of the inspections on New Holland vehicles, for example, are performed from the ground; hoods and guards are secured by hydraulic shock absorbers; and the regulation of most harvesters is either fully automated or can be performed in a short time without the need for tools. The giant BigBaler (winner of the 2013 SIMA Innovation Award for industry-leading safety) minimizes every type of risk associated with maintenance activities: the front shield, for example, can be opened only if the baler is completely stopped, the power take-off turned off, and the flywheel brake engaged.

The safe use of construction equipment is also greatly supported by ergonomics and comfort of use. With regard to passive safety, the cabs of all CNH Industrial brand models are supplied with a Falling Object Protection System (FOPS) against objects falling from above and with Roll Over Protective Structures (ROPS) in the event of vehicle rollover. Additionally, the owner and maintenance manuals include an entire chapter on the safe use of the machine. Lastly, all potentially dangerous machine components are listed and decaled onto the side of the machine itself. Maintenance activities are performed from the ground, to minimize the risk of accidents.

As far as comfort is concerned, cab quietness is a hallmark of all CNH Industrial brand products, as are reduced vibrations and maximized visibility. A rearview video camera connected to a large display is available on wheel loaders, avoiding the need for the operator to continually turn to look behind. The cab of the Case CX75 SR excavator and of the traditional CX80C model was completely redesigned to resemble that of larger Case Series C excavators; the internal space is 7% wider than previous models, and a larger glazed area improves both front and rear visibility. Video cameras are now a standard accessory in the CX80C series to ensure safety during visual inspections, and the new Midi has the same color display as the larger Case CX-C Series hydraulic excavator. For specific applications that require additional safety, Case offers two different front screen guards and a certified lifting and handling kit to lift objects safely.

As regards the transport of goods, especially long hauls, customer comfort is paramount. The cab of the new Stralis was designed around the driver to ensure the best working environment, and maximize productivity at each mission. The cab can be equipped with an IVECONNECT system, which uses a touchscreen display (integrated into the dashboard) to manage the driving style evaluation function (see also page 203), advanced telematics services, the audio system, and the satellite navigation system. The night area was redesigned to hold a bunk with wooden slats, as well as an additional low-noise, energy-efficient air conditioner built into the roof panel, which ensures a comfortable cab temperature even with the engine off. The number and capacity of interior storage compartments was increased; the cab was equipped with a fridge and two large stowage compartments that are illuminated and accessible from both the inside and outside; and two more external storage compartments were added for stowing tools and work clothes. Vehicles for the transport of goods are mostly equipped with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS), which focus both on preventive safety (designed to help the driver prevent dangerous situations) and active safety (designed to help avoid collisions, or reduce the severity of impact). The main systems are:

Preventive safety

  • Daytime Running Light (DRL): low-power position lights that remain on during transit to ensure maximum vehicle visibility, and xenon headlights to increase driver visibility 
  • Hill Holder: system providing assistance when starting a vehicle uphill, it stops it from rolling backwards for a few seconds after the foot brake is released. Hill Holder makes hill starts safe, prevents clutch riding, and reduces brake wear 
  • Driver Attention Support: system that continuously monitors the driver’s attention levels. It monitors steering wheel movements and, should drowsiness be detected, alerts the driver with an acoustic and visual warning
  • Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS): system that alerts the driver if the vehicle strays from its lane, provided that turn signals were not activated first. Extremely effective at preventing accidents caused by tiredness or distraction at the wheel 
  • Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS): system that measures internal tire pressure to reduce fuel consumption and tire wear.

Active safety

  • Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC): intelligent system enabling the driver to maintain a selected cruising speed and the safety distance from vehicles ahead. Should the safety distance not be maintained, the system automatically activates the engine brake, the retarder, and service brakes 
  • Electronic Braking System (EBS): additional functions are integrated into this system, namely the Antilock Braking System (ABS), the Acceleration Slip Regulation (ASR) and the Electronic Brake Limiter (EBL). The system combines the braking action of both the engine brake and retarder, which are activated automatically to enhance the effectiveness and minimize the use of the service brakes, delivering shorter braking distances and an even wear of brake pads
  • Advanced Emergency Braking System (AEBS): available starting from Euro VI vehicles, the system alerts the driver to potential collisions and automatically engages the braking system to avoid, or reduce the speed of, impact 
  • Electronic Stability Program (ESP): the system intervenes in case of swerving, by adjusting the engine power and by braking selectively on the individual wheels until the vehicle regains stability. Effective during unexpected changes in trajectory, and for correcting understeer or oversteer resulting from improper curve entering.

As regards the transport of passengers, safety comes first for Iveco Bus. The new Euro VI Crossway intercity bus, for example, was designed in full compliance with the strictest European standards: R 66 rollover testing, accident prevention testing, seat anchoring, braking system power and effectiveness, ABS and ASR systems to prevent wheel spinning and arrest. Comfort on board was improved by reducing internal noise by more than 50%. The cockpit was enlarged, and the ergonomics of the driver’s seating area were improved with a new dashboard and a swivel seat rotating up to 65 degrees.

GRI-G4
DMA; EN27; PR1
Sustainability Plan

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