Glossary

A

AA1000: framework published by AccountAbility providing sustainability management tools to companies.

ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control): system that allows the driver to maintain the cruising speed selected, as well as the safety distance from the vehicle ahead. If the safety distance is not maintained, the system automatically activates, in sequence: engine braking, intarder/retarder and service brakes.

ACEA (European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association): association founded in 1991 whose main aim is to promote, publicize and protect the interests of supporting manufacturers, for all issues affecting the car industry and transportation in general.

ADAS: Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

AIAG (Automotive Industry Action Group): not-for-profit association of companies operating in the automotive industry.

ANFIA (Italian Association of the Automotive Industry): trade association representing Italian manufacturers and fitters of vehicles for the transport of people and goods.

APAC (Asia Pacific): Region including the following countries: Australia, China, India, Pakistan, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan.

Aspect Boundary (or scope): description of where impacts occur for each material aspect. In setting the aspect boundaries, an organization should consider impacts within and outside of the organization. Aspect boundaries vary based on the aspects reported.

Audit: systematic, documented and independent check to verify compliance with the explicit requirements of applicable regulations.

B

Biodiesel: non-polluting alternative fuel extracted from renewable, freely-available resources, such as vegetable oils.  Biodiesel does not contain petroleum, but can be mixed in various proportions with diesel. It can be used in place of gasoline in suitably adapted engines.

Biodiversity: all life forms on Earth. It comprises every biological variation of genetic inheritance (breeds or varieties of species, both wild and cultivated), species (animals, plants, fungi, microorganisms), and ecosystems (natural habitats such as aquatic, forest or alpine environments).

Biomethane: gas produced by the biological decomposition of organic material in the absence of oxygen, subsequently refined to achieve a methane concentration of 95%. Used as a biofuel for motor vehicles in the same way as natural gas (or fossil methane).

BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand): the total mass of oxygen used by microorganisms, over a specific time period at 20°C, to decompose (oxidize) the organic material present in a liter of water (normally expressed in mg/l). When a single value is given, it is usually BOD5 (5-day BOD).

BTL (Biomass To Liquid): next generation biodiesel derived from biomass.

C

Carpooling: type of transport under sustainable mobility by which private vehicles are shared by a group of people taking the same route.

Carbon footprint: term expressing the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, in CO2 equivalents, of a product, service or organization.

CNG (Compressed Natural Gas): natural gas, composed mainly of methane, compressed and stored in special containers at high pressure. Used as a fuel for vehicles powered by natural gas.

CO2 eq (carbon dioxide equivalent): parameter used to compare various greenhouse gas emissions according to their Global Warming Potential (GWP). The CO2 equivalent of a gas is calculated by multiplying the total weight of gas by its corresponding GWP.

COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand): expressed in milligrams per liter (mg/l), this is the quantity of oxygen required for the complete chemical oxidation of organic and inorganic compounds present in a sample of water.

Conflict minerals: minerals mined in conditions of armed conflict and human rights abuses, notably in the Democratic Republic of Congo and neighboring States. Their use in the USA is regulated by the Dodd-Frank Act.

D

Direct emissions (scope 1): atmospheric emissions of polluting substances originating from combustion processes in which the equipment is under the control and ownership of the organization.

DMA (Disclosures on Management Approach): information on how an organization identifies, analyzes and responds to its actual and potential material economic, environmental and social impacts.

E

EBS (Electronic Braking System): electronic system that controls the braking functions of both tractor unit and semi-trailer, and integrates the Anti-lock Braking System (ABS), Acceleration Slip Regulation (ASR) and Electronic Brake Limiter (EBL) functions.

EEV (Enhanced Environmental-Friendly Vehicles): the most rigorous among European regulations on emissions.

EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation): system that recirculates exhaust gas back to the engine’s intake to reduce NOx emissions.

EMEA (Europe, Middle East, Africa): Region including the following countries: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, the UK, Ethiopia, South Africa.

Emission trading: mechanism enabling the exchange of emission quotas, available to countries belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and Economies in Transition (EIT) to meet their commitments on reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The system, introduced by EC Directive 2003/87/EC, defines a maximum level of acceptable emissions for each member state. According to the level set, emission permits expressed in tons of CO2 are assigned to, and may be exchanged among, participating members.

EPA (Environmental Protection Agency): agency of the United States Government charged with the protection of the environment and public health.

Ergonomics (or human factors): scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions between human and other elements of a system. Through the application of theory, principles, data and design methods, it aims at optimizing human wellbeing and overall system performance.

ESC (Electronic Stability Control): system activated in the event of swerving, which adjusts engine power and selectively brakes each wheel individually until the vehicle regains stability.

Euro VI: series of European standards on polluting emissions that will apply to newly registered road vehicles sold in the EU from 1 September 2014.

F

FOPS (Falling Object Protection System): system protecting the cab and operator from objects falling from above.

Frequency rate: the ratio of the number of injuries reported (resulting in more than three days of absence) to the number of hours worked, multiplied by 100,000.

G

Gas blow-by: flow of gas between the piston ring and the barrel of an engine’s cylinder.

GHG Protocol (Greenhouse Gas Protocol): international standards and guidance regarding corporate greenhouse gas accounting and reporting.

GRI (Global Reporting Initiative): multi-stakeholder association for the development and disclosure of guidelines for nonfinancial reporting.

H

HFCs (Hydrofluorocarbons): halocarbons containing only hydrogen, fluorine and carbon atoms. Because HFCs contain no chlorine, bromine, or iodine, they do not deplete the ozone layer. Like other halocarbons, they are potent greenhouse gases.

Hill Holder: system that provides assistance when starting a vehicle on an incline, preventing it from rolling backwards for a few seconds after the foot brake is released, hence avoiding the need to ride the clutch

HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil): next generation biodiesel derived from vegetable oils.

ILO (International Labour Organization): international organization responsible for drawing up and overseeing international labor standards.

IMDS (International Material Data System): online platform that enables the input of detailed information on the materials and substances used in purchased components.

Indirect emissions (scope 2): air polluting emissions originating from combustion processes external to the organization and over which it has no control.

Inverter: static electronic device that converts direct current into alternating current.

ISO 9001: series of voluntary regulations and guidelines, developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defining the requirements of a quality management system within an organization.

ISO 14001: voluntary regulations published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defining the requirements of an environmental management system.

ISO 14064: a voluntary standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), specifying international best practice in the management, reporting and verification of data and information on greenhouse gases (GHG).

ISO 26000: guidelines published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defining socially responsible behaviors and possible actions. This is not a certification.

ISO 50001 voluntary regulations published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), defining energy management requirements.

IUCN Red List: the most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of plant and animal species, managed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

K

Kaizen: project of continuous improvement identified within World Class Manufacturing.

KPI (Key Performance Indicator): measurement of the performance of a process.

Last mile: final stage in the transport of goods, up to the point of sale or consumer’s home.

LATAM (Latin America): Region including the following countries: Argentina, Brazil, Venezuela.

LCA (Life Cycle Assessment): analytical method to evaluate every interaction between a product/component and the environment, determining the direct or indirect impact over its entire life cycle - from production to recycling and final disposal.

LDWS (Lane Departure Warning System): system that alerts the driver if the vehicle strays from its lane, provided that turn signals were not activated first. Extremely effective at preventing accidents caused by tiredness or distraction at the wheel.

LED (Light-Emitting Diode): semiconductor (diode) that emits light when an electric current passes through a suitably treated silicon junction.

LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas): gas obtained by subjecting compressed natural gas (CNG), previously purified and dehydrated, to subsequent phases of cooling and condensation. The technology of liquefaction allows reducing gas volumes by 600 times in standard conditions, enhancing fuel range.

Material aspects: aspects that reflect the organization’s significant economic, environmental and social impacts, or that substantively influence the assessments and decisions of stakeholders. Qualitative analysis, quantitative assessment and discussion are required to determine if an aspect is material.

NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement): Region including the following countries: USA, Canada, Mexico

Near miss: event that did not result in injury, illness, or damage but had the potential to do so.

NOX (Nitrogen Oxides): range of oxides that can be produced during the combustion of nitrogen-containing compounds.

O

ODS (Ozone Depleting Substances): potentially harmful substances in the ozone layer that, as such, contribute to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. The most important and harmful are chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), generally used as refrigerants, solvents and propellants, and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), used to replace CFCs.

OHSAS 18001: voluntary standard published by the British Standards Institution, defining the requirements of the occupational health and safety management system.

OIFR (Occupational Illness Frequency Rate): cases of occupational Illness per 100,000 hours worked.

PCB (Polychlorinated Biphenyls): group of extremely stable chemical compounds with excellent dielectric and heat transfer properties, widely used in the past in both the industrial and commercial sectors, e.g. in capacitors and transformers. Because of their toxicity to humans and to the environment, today PCBs are considered to be some of the most dangerous pollutants.

PM (Particulate Matter): category of particles, solids and liquids with a diameter ranging from a few nanometers (nm) to a few tens or hundreds of micrometers (μm). Their physical and chemical properties allow them to remain suspended in the atmosphere for long periods (hours, days or years), retaining their physical and/or chemical reactivity as distinct entities.

REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemical substances): European Community Regulation on chemicals and their safe use.

ROPS (Roll Over Protective Structures): structure protecting against the rollover of construction equipment.

SAD (Standard Aggregation Data): IT platform used to monitor and report indicator performance.

SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction): chemical process for reducing NOX levels in exhaust gas.

Severity rate: ratio of the number of days of absence to the number of hours worked, multiplied by 1,000.

SOX (Sulfur Oxides): term meaning the sulfur oxides in the atmosphere; usually sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3).

SRI (Socially Responsible Investing): socially responsible investors are financial operators who, in their investment decisions, also take account of environmental, social and governance factors as well as traditional considerations.

Stakeholders: all those that have a legitimate interest in the activities of an organization and that both influence and are influenced by its decisions.

TCO (Total Cost of Ownership): approach used to calculate all costs in the life cycle of a device (purchasing, management, maintenance and disassembly).

Tier-2 supplier: a business that supplies direct suppliers.

Tier: standard issued by EPA that regulates polluting emissions.

TSS (Total Suspended Solids): parameter used in the management of water quality and in purification which indicates the quantity of solids present in suspension and that can be separated by vigorous mechanical means such as vacuum filtration or centrifugation of a sample of liquid.

V

VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds): compounds classified as VOCs include both hydrocarbons containing carbon and hydrogen as the only elements, as well as compounds containing oxygen, chlorine or other elements together with carbon and hydrogen. Volatile Organic Compounds are defined as any organic compound that has a vapor pressure of 0.01 KPa or more, at 293.15 K (20 °C) as defined in art.268 of Legislative Decree 152/2006.

WCM (World Class Manufacturing): integrated production model which aims at achieving excellence in the entire logistical and productivity cycle, striving to eliminate accidents, waste and breakdowns via continuous performance improvements with the engagement of all levels and functions within the company.

Well-To-Wheel: analysis concerning the energy life cycle.

Work-related stress: a condition that may be associated with physical, psychological and social disorders or dysfunctions, affecting individuals who do not feel capable of meeting set requirements or the expectations of others.